Where is God in the Pain of Mental Illness?

The suffering of mental-health disorders presents a very particular challenge to anyone considering the question of suffering alongside questions of faith. Dr. Amy Orr-Ewing takes a look.

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This is an adapted extract from Amy Orr-Ewing’s book Where Is God in All The Suffering? This empathetic, easy-to-read, and powerful evangelistic book is good for those hoping to answer one of life’s biggest questions as well as those who are either suffering personally or comforting others.

Where is God in depression and suicide?

I feel that I am surrounded by mental illness as so many people I am close to suffer through it. There are young people who have attempted suicide in my community. I have friends needing to take time out from their jobs in order to recover from depressive episodes, all the while fearing that they may find themselves unable to support their families. The suffering caused by a mental-health condition is profound for the sufferers and for those who love and care for them. The anguish of the parents, siblings, and friends left behind by someone who has taken their own life is indescribably awful. The suffering of loss is amplified by the sense that the person who died cannot have realised how their death would devastate those around them, and perhaps did not grasp how much they were loved.

Where is God?

The suffering of mental-health disorders presents a very particular challenge to anyone considering the question of suffering alongside questions of faith since, if we are afflicted personally with a mental-health condition, our very perceptions, thoughts and feelings are affected directly. It follows that in this kind of suffering it can be peculiarly difficult to ask where God is, or to assert confidently that God is not there, since we may well start to doubt the trustworthiness of our own responses, reasoning, and intuitions. Additionally, people of faith with mental-health disorders may have experienced condemnation from other religious believers for the very suffering that they are enduring. Suffering has often been compounded when people have been made to feel as if a struggle with anxiety or depression is an indication of weak faith in religious contexts.

How might we begin to consider the question of where God is in the pain of mental illness? Different kinds of mental-health illnesses will be experienced quite differently, and so it might be helpful to consider what each worldview has to offer as well as the possibilities of the Christian faith.

Depression

Depression is a common mental-health problem that causes people to experience low mood, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, low energy, and poor concentration. It is likely that many of us will either have suffered personally from depression or are close to someone who is suffering. You may even be in the middle of an episode right now or supporting someone. For many of us this will not be a theoretical issue.

What does depression really mean for who we are as human beings in an ultimate sense? If we do not believe in God or any spiritual realm, we may view humanity from a completely physical perspective, understanding every human experience at a purely physical level and focusing only on the material aspects of life. This philosophical viewpoint often leads either to a kind of utilitarianism— where human value, happiness, and experience are measured by what we are able to usefully contribute or produce—or it can be expressed in some form of determinism—where a human life is entirely governed by our genetic makeup and the individual person has no real potential for choice, transformation, or progress. From both of these materialist perspectives, depression is very debilitating, since any experience of it either vastly reduces human productivity and utility or will feel like an utterly inescapable fate—the inevitable outcome of your genes.

Another way of looking at human experience if we don’t believe in God is through the philosophy of dualism, in which the human mind, our thinking, and rationality are paramount and the body is secondary. The body is thought to function as a kind of machine that is animated by the mind. However, if things start to go wrong with the mind— as happens with depression or any mental illness—it is experienced as an utterly fundamental problem that threatens to erase or shatter the very core of the sufferer’s human identity. If you are essentially your mind you are in danger of being erased by a mental illness. This can be very frightening indeed.

From a Christian perspective, a human being is more than their mind and their body.

From a Christian perspective, a human being is more than their mind and their body. A human being is created in the image of God as a mysterious union of body, mind and spirit—and the full sacredness of that reality is not destroyed when things go wrong. But perhaps more importantly, as human beings we are loved. God exists, and God is love. His love for us is not theoretical love; it is actual love. The Christian faith recognises the reality of depression— from a Christian perspective, depression is an affliction fracturing and dislocating our body, mind and soul. Like other kinds of illness and suffering it is a very real and painful consequence of living in this fallen world. But it cannot, and does not, define a person totally and therefore there is hope. You are unwaveringly, wholeheartedly loved—valued as precious, honoured as worthy of receiving eternal love.

Where is God when depression hits? In the Bible He is close to those who are suffering; He offers an ultimate grounding for our worth and value, upholding our status as beloved and cherished people even though we experience darkness and depression as a result of living in this fallen world. We may well need medical support, medicine, and talking therapies. We will certainly need the loving support of a community of people who are prepared to comfort, nurture, and help us. But there is also a bigger picture: knowing that you are not alone and that this experience and this life are not the sum total of your existence. God offers us this hope in the context of relationship with Him and in community with others that we were made to love and be loved. There is real comfort to be received from a loving God who does not deny the depth of our experience of depression but rather offers us an unshakeable foundation for our sense of identity and the value of our entire being—namely divine love.

Suicide

Are people who attempt suicide or die by suicide condemned by God? With the rise of nihilistic worldviews and social-media sites that encourage people to end their own lives, we might ask: Where is God in the struggle and pain of suicidal thoughts? If this life is purely material and all that exists is physical, why is it such a big deal to end a life? We may need to revisit the question as to why death by suicide hurts the friends and relatives left behind so profoundly if life is just a matter of physics and chemistry?

It is worth considering the role of faith in how we process suicide and specifically how a Christian might think about it. I believe that the reported rise in the numbers of people considering suicide in the developed world and the honest articulation of these despair-filled questions gives us an insight into the humanity of each person who asks them. Notice in contrast the power of the idea that our lives are sacred—that every human life is precious and imprinted with God’s image. We human beings are made in the image of God. This complex and rich view of humanity chimes with the sense that human life ought to feel meaningful and fulfilling, as well as our sense of despair and dissonance when it does not.

This complex and rich view of humanity chimes with the sense that human life ought to feel meaningful and fulfilling, as well as our sense of despair and dissonance when it does not.

If you are reading this and struggle with suicidal thoughts, I want you to know that I recognise the despair you feel. First and foremost, I would urge you to seek professional help as there may well be a chemical or medical cause underlying your suicidal impulses, or in the case of a traumatic or psychological underlying cause, therapy from a psychologist may be the most effective treatment. Just as you wouldn’t say, “Just pray about it” or “Don’t think about it” to a person with a broken leg, so with suicide the overriding advice should be to seek professional help.

At the same time, I would also want to point to the preciousness of your life, however you feel about it at the moment. This truth is not a blind, hopeful stab in the dark, rather, it has a coherent intellectual foundation in the Christian faith. The truth that there is hope and that your life is worth everything—to anyone who loves you and (whether you believe in Him or not) to God—is a beautiful and powerful truth to cling hold of. John’s Gospel says of Jesus that “in him was life, and that life was the light to all mankind.” Jesus is the source of life, and the intangible truth of the preciousness of that life is something that God can reveal to us in a very personal way. A deep revelation of the value of life is a legacy of genuine Christian faith.

The Bible does not only hold to an imago dei (image of God) view of human life in a kind of rose-tinted way, imagining that everything will be fine. It also recognises and describes the darkness of the world—including illness, death, depression, and even suicide. These experiences are described and lived by characters in the Bible with real empathy and compassion. Sadly, mental illness was misunderstood for many years, leading churches to refuse Christian funerals or burials to those who died by suicide. But a careful reading of the Bible shows that it does not support that approach at all.

No One is Beyond Hope

When we look at the Bible, I believe we never see suicide portrayed as the right choice, but always and primarily as a tragedy. The compulsion to end one’s own life is far from how things were ever meant to be, yet for many people it is a real and terrible struggle. From a Christian perspective, life is sacred, and the fracturing and dislocation of body and soul are extremely painful, but even in the midst of experiencing these dark and overwhelming feelings, there is a genuine, accessible, and robust hope for redemption. Every life is precious and filled with redemptive possibility whatever our own feelings of hopelessness might say. And so, it would be wrong to determine the significance of a person’s life by their productivity, utility to society, material, social, or economic value. None of us are beyond the transforming hope offered in relationship with God. If you are struggling as you read this, or you know someone who is, please ask for help. Go to your doctor and ask for help. Seek the support of friends and family, and when you have done that, ask God to help you too. Your life matters.

More on Suffering from Amy

Where Is God in All the Suffering?

Dr. Amy Orr-Ewing is no stranger to pain and gives a heartfelt yet academically rigorous examination of how different belief systems deal with the problem of pain.

If you are personally contemplating suicide, we are so sorry for the pain and despair you are suffering. If you are in immediate danger of harming yourself and/or others, we urge you to call 911 (or your emergency service) to seek immediate help. For those who live within the US, you may also call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-8255. If you live outside of the US, here is a link to suicide help lines around the globe: http://www.suicidestop.com/call_a_hotline.html

As an evangelism ministry undergirded by apologetics, the scope and purpose of our ministry is to evangelize and to help train Christians in their witness with credible reasons for the hope they have in Jesus Christ. Therefore, we as a ministry are not licensed or equipped to provide professional counsel. That said, if you need someone to talk with about your situation, the ministry of Focus on the Family has people available that you could talk with. They can be reached by phone at 1-800-A-FAMILY (1-800-232-6459). You may also find resources available at focusonthefamily.com. In addition, we can share two websites of networks of Christian counselors. Through them you may also be able to find a counselor in your local area: caps.net and aacc.net.

Find more thoughtful content on these topics in RZIM Answers.

6 Practical Ways to Respond to Faith Questions

Jo and Vince Vitale and Abdu Murray unpack six ways to respectfully and thoughtfully respond to questions from skeptics about faith, offering practical advice both from their own experiences and from the life of Jesus.

At RZIM, we're passionate about questions. This article is adapted from a transcript of the video below, in which Dr. Vince Vitale, Abdu Murray, and Dr. Jo Vitale unpack six ways to respectfully and thoughtfully respond to questions from skeptics about faith, offering practical advice both from their own experiences and from the life of Jesus.

Vince Vitale shares two reflections on how to better answer questions about faith.

1. Questions Open the Door to Share and Learn

There are two reasons we love questions. First, every question has a true answer. And as Christians, we believe that all truth is grounded in God. So, every question is a gift, because every question, no matter how seemingly irrelevant or antagonistic, is an open door to share something about truth itself–about who God is, and what he has done. The second reason we love questions is because questions are how you get to know a person, any person. And so, if God is a personal being, questions are also how you get to know Him.

2. Take the Time to Prepare

Even before a question is asked, we need to be prepared. 1 Peter 3:15 says, "always be prepared to give an answer." I used to get discouraged when I would read Jesus's answers to questions in the Gospels: "Why do you call me good?" "You who are without sin, throw the first stone." "Render to Caesar what is Caesar's, but to God, what is God's." Jesus' answers are just too incredible. The sorts of answers I think of three hours too late on the drive home.

But the more I thought about it, the more I wondered: are these just instances of Jesus being incredibly quick on his feet? Or just possibly could they also be instances of Jesus being well prepared? We know Jesus took a lot of time alone with his Father, praying. Wouldn't he have been asking his Father "Who am I likely to see tomorrow?" "What questions are they likely to ask me?" "What would be the most intriguing and inviting and loving way I could respond?"

So, take the time, as I believe Jesus did, to be prepared for the questions that come your way. Both the tough questions about faithand the everyday questions: "How was your weekend?" "Not bad? Thanks." Or, "How was your weekend?" "Really good, actually. Saturday, I just did some stuff around the house. And then Sunday, I went to church, which is always a highlight. Do you ever go to church?" "No, I never used to either. But a friend invited me along a few years ago, and I've found it incredibly meaningful. It would be great to have you join me sometime."

If you are a Christian who has had the privilege of encountering the living God in worship and community on Sunday, "Not bad, thanks" isn't even an honest answer. Simple, everyday questions are such a gift. Let's be prepared. Imagine if every time you received that question, every Monday for the rest of your life, you were prepared to share a glimpse of the hope that you have, and have the ultimate answer, to every question, Jesus Christ.

Simple, everyday questions are such a gift.

Abdu Murray suggests two important factors to remember when answering faith questions.

3. Don't Be Defensive Too Quickly

Now one thing Christians do often, when they answer questions, is move to explanation or defense a little too quickly. You see, someone offers an objection to the Christian faith. Maybe they'll say, "the Bible has been changed," "How can you trust the Bible?" "The Bible is untrustworthy," or "Jesus really didn't say the things the Bible says." Immediately, what we do is we launch into explanation, about why we can trust the Bible. "Here's all the textual evidence, here's the history behind it. Here's how I know it's really true." Well, why do we do that? You see, you don't bear the burden of proof at that point. They bear the burden of proof because they've made the claim the Bible's been changed.

Now, I'm a trial lawyer by training. And one of the first things they teach you as a trial lawyer is to make sure that the burden of proof rests on the person making the claim. Now, if you make the claim that God exists, or that Jesus rose from the dead, or whatever it might be, yes, you fairly bear the burden of proving that claim. And you should be prepared as Vince talked about. But if an objector says the Bible's been changed, or Jesus didn't rise from the dead, or science is disproving God, whatever it might be, they bear the burden of doing that. So, what you can do, in that instance, instead of answering with an explanation, is respond with a question yourself. If someone says the Bible has been changed, you can simply say, "Really? When? By whom? Where? In what ways? What parts?" Get them to bear the burden of proof of their own objection. What happens then? If they can't do it, something is exposed, and Jesus masterfully exposed people's motives when he responded to their questions. If they really don't have a substantial reason for believing why they believe, or substantiating the objection they have, oftentimes, the heart is now revealed; we see the motive behind the question.

4. Answer People, Not Just the Questions

Answer people, not questions. This is what the Apostle Paul says in Colossians 4:5-6. He says, "Walk in wisdom toward outsiders, making the best use of the time." (Answer the questions they're actually asking, but answer the person who's actually asking it). And then he says, "Let your speech always be gracious, seasoned with salt, so that you may know how you ought to answer each person." That's beautiful. Paul doesn't say answer each objection, answer each question. He says, "answer each person." Because questions don't need answers. Objections don't need answers. People use their questions and their objections to get the answers they need. But you and I are to answer people. And by putting the burden of proof back where it belongs, you'll get to the heart of who they are and you'll answer them.

Jesus masterfully exposed people's motives when he responded to their questions.

Answer people, not questions.

Jo Vitale offers two key areas in answering questions about faith:


5. Ask Questions that Address the Root of the Issue

As Abdu has said, sometimes people's objections are intellectual, but oftentimes, their intellectual concerns have a deeper root in the heart. For example, someone might say to you, they don't believe in God because of the suffering in the world. But deep down the real hurt comes from the fact that as a child, they pray to God for help, but they felt like He didn't answer that prayer. As Ravi Zacharias would say, "Behind every question, there is a questioner." So how do we learn to reach that questioner, behind the question? We make sure that as part of our questioning, we are asking questions that aim for the heart. Questions like, "What is the primary thing that holds you back from becoming a Christian?" Or a question that Vince loves to ask, "If Christianity was true, would you want it to be? If God was real? Would you want to know Him?" That's a great question, because it moves from the head to the heart to motives they themselves may not have considered, helping someone to honestly, examine whether they're truly open to God or not.

6. Pray for the Holy Spirit's Guidance

If you feel like you're going in circles but not hitting at the underlying issue, and you don't know what question to ask to get there, the best advice we can give is this: pray. Pray, not just before evangelism, but during. Invite the Holy Spirit into your conversation. People often forget and try to do it by themselves, which is crazy, because it's only God who saves, not us. And the Holy Spirit is not just passionate about evangelism, He's actually really good at it. He is the ultimate evangelist. The reason He was sent to us on Pentecost is because we need Him. Ask Him to give you sensitivity to his leading. To prompt you with the right next question. To be working in the other person's heart. And if you do that, I think you'll find it can radically transform your evangelism to not be a nerve-wracking duty that you're doing all by yourself, but as simply taking part in the work of your heavenly Father, and getting a front row seat to watching Him do something gloriously beautiful: taking someone who's spiritually dead and bringing them into the fullness of life. What a joy and privilege that is.

The Holy Spirit is the ultimate evangelist.

Find more thoughtful content on these topics in RZIM Answers.

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